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Скользкая тема. Устройство и принцип работы шипов в зимних шинах

Идея оснастить колеса острыми элементами, цепляющимися за лед, возникла сравнительно давно – еще в XIX веке были попытки снабжать подобием шипов колеса повозок и карет. В 30-е годы XX века начались активные эксперименты в автоспорте – гонщики пытались кустарным способом модифицировать колеса для зимних состязаний. Однако острые спортивные «гвозди» были практически непригодны для дорог общего пользования. Первой серийной легковой шипованной шиной принято считать модель Kometa-Hakkapeliitta компании Nokian. Когда к созданию шипованных шин подключились ведущие шинные компании, эволюция шипа заметно ускорилась.

 

Партнерский материал

Поначалу конструкторам приходилось решать множество технических задач. Наиболее распространенной проблемой оказалась коррозия – многие металлические сплавы не выдерживали постоянного контакта с мокрой поверхностью, а если дорога еще была щедро удобрена солью и реагентами, то жизнь шипа и вовсе оказывалась короткой. К тому же стальные шипы существенно увеличивали вес шины, а следовательно, и неподрессоренные массы. Использовать легкие и малочувствительные к ржавчине металлы вроде алюминия не получилось, поскольку мягкий материал очень быстро стирался, по той же причине потерпели неудачу эксперименты с пластиком. Близкой стала проблема с посадочным местом шипа – под воздействием постоянных нагрузок оно расширялось, ослабляя посадку, между шипом и протектором попадали вода, грязь и реагенты, еще больше усиливая воздействие коррозии.

Постепенно конструкторы пришли к комбинированному решению – тело, то есть корпус шипа, стали делать из легкого устойчивого к коррозии, чаще алюминиевого, сплава, а наконечник – из твердосплавного материала, как правило, с примесью карбида вольфрама. Чтобы шип не расшатывался и не вырывался из гнезда, его корпус обычно делают двухфланцевым, а между фланцами находится более тонкая соединительная ножка. Широкий верхний фланец обладает большой площадью опоры и препятствует чрезмерным колебаниям, а широкий и плоский нижний фланец удерживает шип в протекторе. К примеру, такое решение применяется в шипе Ice Force, который устанавливается в зимнюю шину Toyo Observe Ice-Freezer.

Для успешной работы шипа в течение всего срока службы важно и соответствующее отношение со стороны автовладельцев. Прежде всего, новые шипованные шины нуждаются в обкатке для окончательной фиксации в гнезде. Поэтому первые 500 километров следует ездить, избегая резких маневров, и держать скорость не выше 100 км/ч.

В последнее время разработчики все чаще экспериментируют с формой наконечника шипа, стремясь улучшить проникающий эффект и дифференцировать нагрузку в продольном и поперечном направлении. Встречаются квадратные, овальные и даже крестообразные наконечники. В шипе Ice Force от Toyo Tires основная рабочая часть наконечника сделана пятиугольной, а на ее вершине расположен еще один четырехугольный выступ. Это позволило увеличить количество острых углов и сцепных кромок, значительно улучшив проникающее действие шипа. В результате шип Ice Force обеспечивает хорошую разгонно-тормозную динамику, работая в продольном направлении, а также боковую поддержку, существенно облегчая прохождение поворотов.

Но, разумеется, сцепление зависит не только от формы шипов, но и от их количества, и расположения в протекторе. В современных шинах этот параметр все чаще подбирается с помощью компьютерного моделирования, например, технологии T-MODE от Toyo Tires. В новой шине Observe Ice-Freezer разработчики применили 28-рядную ошиповку, что позволило не только улучшить сцепление с дорогой, но и снизить шум благодаря равномерному распределению шипов.

Эффективность работы шипов во многом зависит от окружающей температуры. Считается, что лучше всего они проникают в лед при умеренном холоде. Когда воздух остывает ниже -25 градусов, то лед становится существенно прочнее, и шипам сложнее его прокалывать. Преимущества здесь у моделей с оптимальной формой наконечника, обладающего острыми гранями, как, например, у шипа Ice Force, а также у шин оснащенных мягкой и эластичной резиновой смесью, сохраняющей свои характеристики при сильном морозе, что позволяет резине облегать микронеровности ледяной дороги. Эффект возрастает, если резиновая смесь дополнена абразивными элементами – такими свойствами, в частности, обладает упомянутая выше шина Toyo Observe Ice-Freezer с технологией Microbit, ее суть с том, что в резину добавлена измельченная скорлупа грецкого ореха, частицы которой повышают сцепные свойства шины на льду. Такое технологическое решение родилось, когда в Японии запретили шипованные шины и инженеры искали новые способы повысить сцепление на льду. Оказалось, что скорлупа грецкого ореха – материал более твердый, чем лед, и ее острые частицы способны эффективно царапать ледяную поверхность. В то же время скорлупа мягче асфальтового покрытия и не наносит ему вреда.

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